Author: Harbourfront Technologies

Pricing Convertible Bonds Using Monte-Carlo Simulations

Convertible bonds are complex securities that are part debt, part equity. The main feature of a convertible bond is the conversion that allows the bondholder to convert debt to equity. In addition, there can be many other “exotic” features such as callable, puttable, forced conversion, soft call, contingent conversion, etc. …

Are Index Options Markets Efficient?

Options market efficiency is a topic of interest not only to academics but also to practitioners. There is a body of research focusing on market inefficiency. For example, we recently highlighted a research paper dealing with sector ETFs’ implied volatilities and correlations. The research result implies that the options market …

Can Dividend Yield Be Negative?

We previously discussed implied dividend yield and how to extract it from traded financial instruments. Given that dividend is considered a cash payment the shareholder receives when holding a stock, naturally one would think that dividend yield can only be zero or positive. We recently, however,  worked with a client …

Volatility Term Structure of the DAX Index

Volatility term structure is believed to be a common phenomenon across asset classes. In equity indices, it’s well-known that implied volatility (IV) is generally greater than realized volatility (RV) (i.e. there exists a so-called volatility risk premium), and out-of-the-money (OTM) IV is greater than at-the-money (ATM) IV (i.e. there exists …

Does Intraday Momentum Exist in Stock Indices?

Most of the studies on time-series momentum have been performed in the daily, weekly, and monthly timeframes. Relatively less research has been conducted in the intraday timeframe. So naturally, we would ask the question: Does the momentum exist intraday? Reference answers this question. It examined the time-series momentum of …

Does Trend Following Work on Single-Name Stocks?

Trend following is a popular trading strategy used by Commodity Trading Advisors (CTA) and Hedge Funds around the world. The traded assets are often futures on commodities, FX, fixed-income, and equity indices. We previously demonstrated that stock indices exhibit trending property in the long term, i.e. their returns are positively …