Credit risk is the risk associated with defaults from borrowers. In any debt transaction, the lender has to bear some credit risk associated with providing the loan. This risk depends on several factors, such as the borrower’s past financial background, current earnings, security provided, etc. In case a borrower defaults on the loan, the lender has to incur significant losses. Therefore, each lender has to evaluate the credit risk associated with a loan before providing it.
What is Credit Risk Analysis?
Credit Risk Analysis is the process through which a lender analyzes the credit risk associated with their loans. It involves techniques and procedures through which lenders decide on whether to provide the borrower with credit or not. Usually, it involves a multi-step process that the lender carries out for every single borrower and loan transaction.
The primary reason why lenders perform a credit risk analysis is to reduce the chances of default. This way, they can reduce the costs associated with the loan. Usually, credit risk analysis is a part of a lender’s risk management and credit allocation process. There are various steps that lenders take during this process. It may include running background checks on the borrower, evaluating their income, examining their financial or bank statements, etc.
How does Credit Risk Analysis work?
The credit risk analysis process involves evaluating the credit risk involved for a specific borrower’s loan. Usually, lenders perform various evaluations to measure a borrower’s creditworthiness. It includes running credit checks on the borrower, such as background checks, financial history, earning reports, etc. Lenders may also assess the borrower’s credit report for this information.
Similarly, lenders may require employer letters for employed individuals applying for a loan. On top of that, lenders will also request bank statements. For businesses, lenders usually require their business plan or financial statements. Similarly, lenders may also ask the borrower to provide a credit reference. Furthermore, borrowers may also have to provide security during the process.
Why do lenders perform Credit Risk Analysis?
The primary purpose of performing credit risk analysis is to quantify the credit risk that each borrower presents to a lender. The credit risk analysis process usually includes measuring the probability of default for each borrower. Through this, lenders can assign measurable values to the default chances for every transaction. This way, the lender gets a quantifiable and comparable statistic for further processing.
Furthermore, credit risk analysis is crucial in the decision-making process performed by lenders. Usually, lenders decide on whether to provide a loan to borrowers after performing a credit risk analysis. This process is also crucial for dictating the terms offered to borrowers. For example, a borrower with an undesirable credit risk will get higher interest rates compared to others.
Every institutional lender has a credit analyst that performs credit risk analysis of its lenders. The primary purpose of this process is to evaluate a borrower’s creditworthiness. While credit ratings are also a measure of creditworthiness, most lenders have switched to performing credit risk analysis in-house. This way, each lender can customize the process and get better results from the process.
Credit risk analysis is the process performed by lenders to assess the credit risk involved in a loan transaction. Based on this information, lenders can decide on whether they should provide a loan to a specific borrower. Credit risk analysis is of significant importance. The primary purpose of this process is to quantify a borrower’s creditworthiness through several evaluations.