Category: DERIVATIVES

Option Pricing Model in Illiquid Markets

Black-Scholes-Merton (BSM) is an option pricing model for valuing European options. It was developed in the 1970s by Fisher Black, Myron Scholes, and Robert Merton, of whom two were awarded the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 1997 for their work. The BSM model has become one of the most …

Variance and Volatility Swaps

Forward contracts are a crucial part of hedging and speculation for investors. These contracts allow two parties to buy or sell an asset at a specific price and future time. Usually, they also include the commodity, delivery date, and amount for the agreement. Forward contracts may come in many forms …

Sales and Purchase Agreement

Financial transactions are the essence of a business. These transactions allow companies and other entities to acquire products or services. Once they do so, they can resell them to generate profits. While most transactions are straightforward, they may also require a legal form. For that purpose, sales and purchase agreements …

Valuation Adjustment Mechanism (VAM): Definition, Agreement, Example, Usage

The term mergers and acquisitions (M&A) refers to the consolidation of companies through financial transactions. This process involves one company acquiring another company’s shares. Several terms and conditions may apply to these transactions. However, these terms may differ from one market to another. The valuation adjustment mechanism is unique to …

Pricing Convertible Bonds Using Monte-Carlo Simulations

Convertible bonds are complex securities that are part debt, part equity. The main feature of a convertible bond is the conversion that allows the bondholder to convert debt to equity. In addition, there can be many other “exotic” features such as callable, puttable, forced conversion, soft call, contingent conversion, etc. …

Can Dividend Yield Be Negative?

We previously discussed implied dividend yield and how to extract it from traded financial instruments. Given that dividend is considered a cash payment the shareholder receives when holding a stock, naturally one would think that dividend yield can only be zero or positive. We recently, however,  worked with a client …