Category: DERIVATIVES

Implied Volatilities From a Behavioural Finance Perspective

We have discussed at length the implied volatility and its relationships with realized volatility, volatility skew, dividend yield, and correlations. Moreover, it is interesting to examine implied volatility from a behavioural finance perspective. Reference studied the relationship between various countries’ implied volatilities and their cultural characteristics. Specifically, it utilized …

Skewness Risk Premium in the Options Market

Skewness of returns is a statistical measure that captures the asymmetry of the distribution of an asset’s returns over a specified period. It is particularly important in risk management and option pricing, where the skewness of returns can affect the valuation of derivatives and the construction of portfolios. Reference  …

Modeling Short-term Implied Volatilities in the Heston Stochastic Volatility Model

Stochastic volatility models, unlike constant volatility models, which assume a fixed level of volatility, allow volatility to change. These models, such as the Heston model, introduce an additional stochastic process to account for the variability in volatility, providing a more nuanced dynamics of the market. By incorporating factors like mean …

Realized Volatility, the Good and the Bad

Realized volatility (RV) refers to the actual movement of an asset’s price over a specific period, typically measured using high-frequency data. Unlike implied volatility, which is derived from options prices and reflects market expectations, realized volatility is computed from historical price data and provides an empirical measure of how much …

An Options Pricing Model for Non-Frictionless Markets

The traditional option pricing model assumes that the market is frictionless. However, a body of research has developed theories that do not make this assumption. Reference utilizes the Stochastic Arbitrage (SA) approach to derive price bounds within which the admissible risk-neutral option prices, which are determined by using the …

Predicting Realized Volatility Using Skewness and Kurtosis

Realized volatility refers to the actual volatility experienced by a financial asset over a specific period, typically computed using historical price data. By calculating realized volatility, investors and analysts can gain insights into the true level of price variability in the market, which can be valuable for risk management, portfolio …

A Pricing Model for Earthquake Bonds

A catastrophe bond, commonly referred to as a cat bond, is a type of insurance-linked security that allows insurers and reinsurers to transfer the risk associated with catastrophic events, such as natural disasters, to capital market investors. These bonds are typically issued by insurance companies or special purpose vehicles (SPVs) …

Impact of Zero DTE Options on the Market

Zero DTE (0DTE) options, also known as “same-day expiration” options, are financial derivatives with expiration dates on the same day they are traded. These options offer traders the opportunity to profit from short-term price movements in the underlying asset. Due to their extremely short time frame, zero DTE options are …