Author: Harbourfront Technologies

How to Forecast Implied Volatility

How do you determine the volatility of an unlisted entity, and more generally, how do you forecast volatility? These are non-trivial questions. There is an interesting discussion on Stackexchange: Here is a question I had for a long time but I never asked. Let’s take an easy example, AirBnb will …

Impact of a Low Correlation Trading Strategy

When constructing a portfolio, adding a low correlation, low Sharpe ratio strategy can have the same impact as adding a high Sharp ratio strategy. The low correlation strategy is a great diversifier. The core argument presented in this paper –that SR is a misleading index of whom a fund should …

Employee Stock Options-Derivative Pricing in Python

Employee Stock Option (ESO) is a form of compensation that a company uses to reward, motivate, and retain its employees. An employee stock option (ESO) is a label that refers to compensation contracts between an employer and an employee that carries some characteristics of financial options. Employee stock options are …

Garman-Klass-Yang-Zhang Historical Volatility Calculation – Volatility Analysis in Python

In the previous post, we introduced the Garman-Klass volatility estimator that takes into account the high, low, open, and closing prices of a stock. In this installment, we present an extension of the Garman-Klass volatility estimator that also takes into consideration overnight jumps. Garman-Klass-Yang-Zhang (GKYZ) volatility estimator consists of using …